Association between hypertension and mild cognitive impairment among people aged 55 years and above in four provinces of China
P< 0.05）。轻度认知障碍检出率为38.1%。轻度认知障碍检出率在城乡、年龄组、最高受教育水平、家庭人均月收入及工作状况分组差异均有统计学意义（ P< 0.05）。在控制了人口学因素、生活方式因素、膳食因素、BMI分级、居住地区后，多因素logistic回归分析显示，高血压不知晓组的轻度认知障碍风险为非高血压组的1.28（95% CI：1.06~1.55）倍。 结论
People aged 55 years and over is a high risk group of hypertension and mild cognitive impairment. Blood pressure is related to cognitive decline as reported by foreign research, while there are few studies in China.
This study is conducted to investigate the distribution characteristics of blood pressure status and mild cognitive impairment among people aged 55 years and over in four provinces of China, as well as to analyze the relationship between blood pressure status and mild cognitive impairment.
The research data were obtained from the baseline survey of "Community-based Cohort Study on Nervous System Diseases" from 2018 to 2019. A total of 4 452 individuals aged 55 years and over with complete data of blood pressure measurement, hypertension diagnosis history, cognitive function assessment, and demographic information were selected. According to the blood pressure measurement data and the history of hypertension diagnosis, blood pressure was divided into four categories: non-hypertension, diagnosed hypertension (including controlled hypertension and uncontrolled hypertension), and undiagnosed hypertension. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment was used to evaluate the overall cognitive function of the participants, and to identify mild cognitive impairment combining with educational level. Chi-square test was used to compare the distribution of blood pressure status and mild cognitive impairment among subgroups by selected characteristics. A multiple logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between blood pressure status and mild cognitive impairment.
The prevalence rate of hypertension in the selected residents was 55.3%, among which the prevalence rates of controlled hypertension, uncontrolled hypertension, and undiagnosed hypertension were 1.8%, 20.1%, and 23.4%, respectively. Significant differences were found in the rate of hypertension among the people grouped by residence, age group, highest education level, household monthly income per capita, employment, smoking, and BMI level (
P< 0.05). The positive rate of mild cognitive impairment was 38.1%. Significant differences were found in the positive rate of mild cognitive impairment among the people grouped by residence, age group, highest education level, household monthly income per capita, and employment ( P< 0.05). After controlling for the variables of demographic factors, lifestyle, dietary factors, graded body mass index, and residence, the results of multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the risk of mild cognitive impairment for the undiagnosed hypertension group was 1.28 (95% CI: 1.06-1.55) times higher than that for the non-hypertension group. Conclusion
In China, hypertension and mild cognitive impairment are prominent in people aged 55 years and over. Undiagnosed hypertension is associated with an increased risk of mild cognitive impairment.